The sun has been giving the earth light and heat for billions of years in Australia and all over this world but it wasn't until just recently that man figured out just how to capture as well as harness some of that energy the sun has been sending us. The very first method of was the photovoltaic cell that was created by Bell Laboratories in 1954 and since then solar cells have evolved from just transforming energy by using huge space equipment to devices as small as a solar charger for batteries.
So how does it work? Getting the energy that is used by a solar charger you may own and use in your Australian home that is gathered from the sun. Scientifically put, there is an electrical current that is created by the movement of what are called free electrons and they carry negative charges. The electrons are normally entangled in an orbit that goes around a nucleus of an atom and this atom is made of protons and neutrons. These are the building blocks of matter and they are found everywhere. If given enough energy, the electrons can be knocked out of their orbits.
For the solar charger to work properly for any of your devices in your home in Australia, a photon must be used to knock the electrons loose from them orbit around the atom. The photons from the sun have enough energy in them to jar these electrons from orbit in silicon and this is the material that is used for most solar cells in anything that uses the energy from the sun. This process is called photoelectric effect.
What then happens is that there is an imbalance between the positively charged and the negatively charged particles in the silicon by adding impurities of boron and phosphorus. This then helps to create an electric field in the silicon. Then when the photons strike the material and free the electrons from their orbits, this field will push them toward the front of solar cells which then will make a negative charged side. Then it is the protons that are left behind that will make up the positive side of the surface of the cell. Then these two sides can be connected by the use of an external load or an indirect circuit such as the terminals of a solar charger. The electrons will flow into the load and then it created electricity. Multiple solar cells are needed in order for the charger to produce enough power to charge a battery.
A solar charger doesn't directly charge the lithium ion battery for a gadget. What happens is they usually will maintain their own rechargeable batteries that are either chemical or lithium ion and they are charged through solar modules and then will redistribute their charge to the gadget that the battery powers. There is no need for any external electric source to do this.
The two biggest benefits of using a solar charger are environmental friendliness and the freedom of movement this type of device can give a person. There is however a drawback to using a solar charger and that is for about half the day somewhere on earth, the sun can't be found. So this means this type of device is completely useless at night or in bad weather and heavy cloud cover.